CAIIB ABM Unit 21 - Development of Human Resources

CAIIB ABM Unit 21 - Development of Human Resources (Year: 2019)

HRD and its subsystems

  1. Organized learning experience in a definite time period to increase the possibility of improving job performance growth
  2. A process by which employees of an organisation are helped in a continuous and planned way to:
  3. Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future jobs
  4. Develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit their own inner potential for their own and/or organisational development purpose
  5. Develop an organisational culture in which supervisor-subordinate relationships, teamwork and collaboration among subunits are strong and contribute to the professional well-being, motivation and pride of employees


Goals of HRD

To develop:

  1. Capabilities of each employee as an individual
  2. Capabilities of each individual in relation to his or her present role
  3. Capabilities of each employee in relation to his or her expected future role(s)
  4. Dyadic relationship between each employee and his/her supervisor
  5. Team spirit and functioning in every organisational unit (department, group etc)
  6. Collaboration among different units of the organisation
  7. Organisation’s overall health and self-renewing capabilities, which, in turn increase the enabling capabilities of individuals, dyad teams, and the entire organisation


Job/Role Analysis

Job Description

  1. List of requirements: Skills, Qualifications etc. for performing the job

Job Specifications

  1. Used to compare two jobs within an organisation or between organisations or even an industry

Job Evaluation

  1. Used to compare two jobs within an organisation or between organisations or even an industry


  1. Complex system of tasks
  2. Requires a person to achieve an overall product
  3. The relationship is irrelevant


  1. Puts an individual in a hierarchical position


  1. Emphasises on the pattern of mutual expectations


  1. Goes a step further to encompass socio-psychological relationship


  1. Goes a step further to encompass socio-psychological relationship


Training and Development – Role and Impact of Training


  1. Identification of Training Needs
  2. Conducting the training
  3. Evaluation of Training
  4. Selection and development of trainers

Purpose of Training and Development


  1. Improved performance of individual on his present job
  2. Learning related to present job


  1. His preparation for an identified job in a not too distant future
  2. Learning to prepare the individual for a different but identified job
  3. General Learning


  1. His general growth (development) not related to any specific job
  2. Learning for growth of the individual not related to a specific present or future job
  3. Futuristic Learning

Importance of clarity of purpose

  1. Purpose will determine the choice as shown earlier
  2. It will make the expected outcomes clear to both the parties
  3. Helps in identifying who is responsible for what activity

Imperatives of Adult Learning

  1. Andragogy – Adult learning process. Analogous to pedagogy
  1. A cooperative venture in non-authoritarian, informal learning, the chief purpose of which is to discover the meaning of experience, a quest of mind which digs down to the roots of the preconceptions which formulate our conduct; a technique of learning for adults which makes education coterminous with life and hence elevates living itself to the level of adventurous experiment.


Learning Theories

Mechanistic (or Behaviorist) Theories

  1. Hold that learner is passive in the learning process
  2. Every input/stimulus will get a predetermined response
  3. Learning occurs when a learner is conditioned to give the ‘right’ response to a given stimulus
  4. Mechanistic (or Behaviorist) Theories

Cognitive Theories

  1. Equate man with his brain – humans are capable of critical thinking and problem solving
  2. Purpose of learning is to teach the brain to engage in such critical thinking and problem solving

Cognitive Theories

  1. Organismic (or Humanistic) Theories
  2. Learning occurs when learners have ‘freedom to learn’ what is particularly relevant to their personal life situation
  3. Purpose of learning is to encourage each individual to develop his or her full, unique potential

Variables associated with actual Teaching-Learning situation

  1. Learning is enhanced when learner is motivated
  2. Learning requires feedback
  3. Reinforcement increases the likelihood that a learned behaviour will be repeated
  4. Practice increases a learner’s performance
  5. Learning must be transferable to the job

Systematic Approach to Learning (SAT)

  1. Will the training be done internally or externally?
  2. How much and what kind of training will be done externally and is this also an essential part?
  3. Who are the functionaries responsible for administering the training system?

SAT – The process

  1. Training Need Analysis(TNA) and Identification of Training Needs
  2. Preparation of a Training Plan
  3. Conduct of the Training

(including designing the programme)

  1. Evaluation of the Training Programme and the plan

(Reaction Level, Learning Level, Behaviour Level and Functioning Level)

  1. Selection and Development of Trainers

Support systems for Training and Development

  1. Performance Appraisal System
  2. Human Resource Information System
  3. Organisational Culture

Attitude Development

  1. Persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some object
  2. Characteristics:
  3. Tends to persist unless something is done to change it
  4. Can fall anywhere in the continuum from very favourable to very unfavourable or positive to negative
  5. Directed towards some object about which a person has perception, feelings and beliefs, which may result in emotionally charged opinion and prejudices


Components of Attitudes
Emotional Component

  1. Person’s feelings or their effect – positive, neutral or negative – about an object
  2. Expression of emotions, whether positive or negative, is important to work behaviour

Information Component

  1. Beliefs and information that an individual has about an object
  2. Usually founded on insufficient observations or opinions which may not be empirically correct

Behavioural Component

  1. Person’s tendency to behave in a particular way towards the object


Significance of Attitude at Workplace

Adjustment Function

  1. Help people adjust to their work environment

Ego-defensive Function

  1. Help people defend their self-image

Value-Expression Function

  1. Provide people a basis for expressing their values
  2. Helps to subscribe to the ethics

Knowledge Function

  1. Help supply standards and frames of reference that allow people to organise and explain the world around them
  2. Regardless of how accurate a person’s view of reality is, attitudes toward people, event and objects impact the sense the individual makes out of what is going on.

Changing Attitudes

Barriers to attitude change:

  1. Prior commitment to a particular thing
  2. Insufficient information

Overcoming the Barriers to attitude change:

  1. Use of Fear
  2. Provide New Information
  3. Resolving discrepancies between attitude and behaviour
  4. Influence of peers, friends and opinion leaders Co-Opting – Getting the dissatisfied people involved in improvement process


Career Path Planning

The idea behind Career Path Planning

  1. Individuals desire and expect change at certain stages in life
  2. There is a (predictable) pattern in these changes
  3. There is a feeling of frustration if things do not happen as desired or expected

Life (Adulthood) Stages


  1. Individual’s development is to achieve an ego identity
  2. A reconciliation process of what he perceives himself to be, what he thinks others perceive him to be and make an adjusted assessment to form his identity

Young Adulthood

  1. Starts developing relationship with individuals, groups (interest group or work group) or occupation.


  1. Guiding the next generation
  2. Passing on the knowledge, values or sponsoring the younger colleagues


  1. Person attempts to achieve ego integrity by examining whether life has been meaningful or satisfying

Career Roles


  1. Beginning of the career
  2. Does routine work under the supervision of the mentor
  3. Needs to accommodate himself to a certain level of dependency


  1. Beginning of making independent contribution
  2. Less dependence on superiors for advice and direction


  1. Beginning of complex functions
  2. Individual develops ideas, manages others and must learn to assume responsibility for subordinates’ work


  1. Needs to broaden perspective and think long term
  2. Needs to define the direction in which the entire organisation or atleast a major segment would develop
  3. Needs to develop the capability to choose the right people in the organisation who can support the process of influencing

Career Concepts

Linear Career Concept

  1. Plan for upward movement within the same profession using organisational hierarchy

Steady State Career

  1. Individuals choose a profession, acquire higher skills, but do not choose to go higher up in the hierarchy

Transitory Pattern

  1. Individuals shift from one job to another not necessarily related to the previous one

Spiral Career

  1. Individuals take on a new job, work hard, perform well, move up in the status and rank, then move on to another type of work and follow the same pattern of development and performance

Plateau Career

  1. Reaching a level higher than where one started but then continuing on the same level

Career Path

  1. When these movements are predetermined in a logical sequence to enable an individual to have knowledge of all activities of the organisation (horizontal movement), different perspectives of management (field and controlling) and different levels of management (heirarchial) it could be said that the organisation has developed a career path


  1. With an established Career Path Planning Subsystem the organisation can have a continuous supply of individuals with required capabilities for future roles

Components of Career Anchors

  1. Self perception of talents and abilities based on one’s performance
  2. Self perceived motives and needs based on self diagnosis and feedback
  3. Self perceived attitudes and values based on interactions with the norms and values implicit in the organisation


Schein’s Career Anchors

Technical/Functional Competence

  1. ‘in love’ with a particular field or function

Managerial Competence

  1. Early experiences indicate an individual will be able to rise in the management hierarchy


  1. Secure work environment and career


  1. Desire to create something new


  1. Some find organisational life unpleasant or difficult. Prefer to maintain their freedom

Career Path Planning System

Main responsibilities of the organisation while developing and implementing a career plan are:

  1. The policy of career planning is made explicit. It lays down the benchmarks for performance at critical stages which the employees must attain
  2. It is made clear that the career path is a facility for growth and not a right for advancement
  3. The career path – a sequence of job assignments, training requirements and promotion to higher level – is made known to the employees from the time of entry. Performance feedback is a part of the career path
  4. The career path is followed uniformly for all employees without any bias/prejudices
  5. It should be flexible to accommodate variations which may be needed to deal with the given circumstances


Career Path Planning Process

  1. Define the career stages (Role) in relation to the organisational levels
  2. Identify the core jobs at each level
  3. Define and spell out the criteria for each successive level
  4. Placement in the next career role

Multiple Careers in one organisation

  1. In flatter organisations hierarchy is neither desired, nor available
  2. What is needed is to develop expertise in different areas
  3. The concept of spiral careers is becoming an ideal one in this situation


Self Development

Self development essentially refers to developing a mature personality who can handle different tasks and situations with comparative ease. Process of discovering and utilising the tremendous potential within one’s individual personality

Patent Self

  1. External self comprising individual’s identity and physical features

Inner Self

  1. Signifies the behavior patterns, values and other psychological factors including strengths and weaknesses

Aspects of Self Development in relation to an organisation Individual Level

Individual Level

  1. Motivational Pattern
  2. Locus of Control
  3. Power Bases

Interpersonal Level

  1. Interpersonal Needs
  2. Transactional Analysis

Group Level

  1. Being effective member in the work group

Locus of Control

  1. Belief of an individual about who is responsible for what happens in life
  2. Types:
  3. External: Believe that events are determined by external forces like other influential persons in society, luck, destiny and so on
  4. Internal: Believe individuals can determine events
  5. Motivation has to come from with in for real growth. Internal locus of control ensures growth

Power Bases

  1. Power: A person’s potential to get others to do what he or she wants them to do, as well as avoid being forced to do what he or she does not want to do
  2. Types:
  3. Coercive Bases: Organisational position, punishment, charisma, personal relationship, closeness to a source of power, withholding information on resources
  4. Persuasive Bases: Expertise, competence and modelling

Interpersonal interactions: Dyadic relationship

  1. In organisations most of the situations imply interacting with and influencing others
  2. Dyad: Two individuals maintaining a sociologically significant relationship - Interpersonal relationship
  3. Underlying concepts:
  4. Interpersonal Needs
  5. Interpersonal Interactions (Transactional Analysis)

Interpersonal Needs

Need for Inclusion

  1. To establish and maintain a satisfactory relationship with people with respect to interaction and association

Need to Control

  1. To establish and maintain satisfactory relationship including:
  2. Psychologically comfortable relationship in controlling all behaviour of other people
  3. Eliciting behaviour from them which controls one’s own behaviour

Need for Affection

Transactional Analysis (TA)

  1. Ego states: ‘consistent pattern of feeling and experience directly related to a corresponding consistent pattern of behaviour’


  1. Regulates behaviour and nurtures it
  2. Ethical, conscientious behaviour
  3. Influenced by preaching’s from parents and elders


  1. Collects information and processes it
  2. Analytical, rational and practical orientation


  1. Concerned with creativity, curiosity, reactions to others and adjusting behaviour (Little Professor)
  2. Instinctive behaviour with motive of enjoyment

TA - Types of Transactions

  1. Complementary (Most Desirable)
  2. Crossed (Not Desirable)
  3. Angular
  4. Duplex

TA - Life Positions

  1. I AM OK YOU ARE OK (Ideal Situation)

Working in Teams

  1. Team: A group of people with high degree of interdependence geared towards the achievement of a goal or the completion of task
  2. Group Dynamics:
  3. Internal nature of groups
  4. How they form
  5. Their structure and processes
  6. How they function and affect individuals and organisation

Stages in Group Formation and Behaviour

  1. Forming (Awareness) Members with varied awareness get acquainted, understand the team’s goal and its role
  2. Storming (Conflict) Conflict among the members helps the team in defining itself
  3. Norming (Cooperation) How the task will be accomplished? Rules and regulations of the team?
  4. Conforming (Adjustment) Adjusting one with the team expectations and norms
  5. Performing (Productivity) Members behave in mature fashion and focus on accomplishing their goal. Full energy dedicated to work.


  1. Understanding self helps in the process of self-development
  2. Johari Window by Luft and Ingham
  3. The more one knows oneself, the better equipped he is to face challenges










Emotional Intelligence

  1. Abilities such as being able to motivate oneself and persist in the face of frustration, to control impulse and delay gratification, to regulate one’s moods and keep away distress from swamping the ability to think, to empathise and to hope.
  2. Unlike IQ, EQ grows throughout adulthood

Five components of Emotional Intelligence

Self Awareness

  1. Ability to recognize, understand one’s mood, emotions and drives, as well as their effects on others


  1. Ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods and propensity to suspend judgement – to think before acting


  1. Passion to work for reasons that go beyond money or status and propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence


  1. Ability to understand the emotional make up of others and skill to treat people according to their emotional reactions

Social Skills

  1. Proficiency in managing relationships and building networks and ability to find common ground and build rapport


  1. The morale denotes a spirit as of dedication to a common goal that unites a group
  2. Displays the emotional or mental condition w.r.t. cheerfulness, confidence, zeal etc
  3. High morale translates into positive motivation, increased productivity, exceeding expectations for performance and happy employees

Employee Morale Boosters

  1. Welcome Ideas
  2. Keep Score
  3. Inspect Thank You Notes
  4. Huddle
  5. Open Up
  6. Have Fun
  7. Show Charity
  8. Add Perks
  9. Fire Staff
  10. Measure It